# Introduction

Energy provides in information facilities that measure the enter energy in actual time and report the measurement to the host are conducting what’s often called electrical metering (e-metering). An e-meter has change into a typical requirement in power-supply models over the past decade as a result of it brings these benefits to information facilities [1]:

- Identifies abnormally low or excessive power utilization and potential causes, supporting such practices as peak shaving.
- Facilitates capability planning round area and energy utilization.
- Helps observe and handle power prices; verifies power payments; and prioritizes, validates, and reduces power prices by means of improved power effectivity and power administration.
- Permits quantitative assessments of information heart efficiency and benchmarking of that efficiency throughout a degree enjoying area.
- Helps develop and validate energy-efficiency methods, and identifies alternatives to enhance power effectivity by decreasing power and operational prices.
- Fee and detect faults in bodily methods and diagnose their causes.

For all of those causes, an e-meter should be exceptionally correct. **Determine 1** exhibits the Modular {Hardware} System-Frequent Redundant Energy Provide (M-CRPS) e-meter accuracy requirement [2], which requires an enter energy measurement error inside ±1% when the load is larger than 125 W, inside ±1.25 W when the load is between 50 W and 125 W, and inside ±5 W when the load is beneath 50 W.

**Determine 1 **The M-CRPS e-meter accuracy specification which requires an enter energy measurement error: inside ±1% when the load is larger than 125 W; inside ±1.25 W when the load is between 50 W and 125 W, and inside ±5 W when the load is beneath 50 W. Supply: Texas Devices

To realize such excessive measurement accuracy, historically the e-meter perform is carried out by means of a devoted metering machine [3], as proven in **Determine 2**. A present shunt positioned on the ability issue correction (PFC) enter facet senses the enter present, with a voltage divider (not proven in Determine 2) throughout the AC line and AC impartial senses the enter voltage. A devoted metering machine receives this present and voltage info and calculates the enter energy and enter root-mean-square (RMS) present info, sending the outcomes to the host.

**Determine 2 **Conventional e-meter and PFC management configuration the place: a present shunt is positioned on the PFC enter facet to sense the enter present, a voltage divider (not proven) senses the AC line, and AC impartial senses the enter voltage. Supply: Texas Devices

To regulate the PFC enter present, one other present sensor, such because the Corridor-effect sensor proven in Determine 2, senses the enter present, then sends the enter present info to an MCU for PFC current-loop management. Nevertheless, each the Corridor-effect sensor and devoted metering machine are costly.

On this energy tip, I’ll focus on a low-cost however extremely correct e-meter resolution that makes use of a single present sensor for each e-metering and PFC current-loop management. Integrating e-meter performance into PFC management code eliminates the necessity for a devoted metering machine, not solely decreasing system value, but additionally simplifying printed circuit board (PCB) structure and expediting the design course of.

# E-meter resolution

**Determine 3** exhibits the proposed e-meter configuration. A present shunt senses the enter present; an remoted delta-sigma modulator AMC1306 measures the voltage drop throughout the present shunt. The delta-sigma modulator output is distributed to the PFC controller MCU. This present info will likely be used for each e-metering and PFC current-loop management. A voltage divider senses the enter voltage, which is then measured by the MCU’s analog-to-digital converter (ADC) instantly, simply as in conventional PFC management.

**Determine 3 **New e-meter and PFC management configuration the place: a present shunt senses the enter currnet, an remoted delta-sigma modulator measures the voltage dropp acorss the shunt, and the output of the modulator is used to e-metering and PFC current-loop management. Supply: Texas Devices

## Delta-sigma modulator

In comparison with the successive approximation register (SAR) fashion ADC, which nearly all digital PFC controller MCUs use, a delta-sigma modulator can present high-resolution information. The modulator samples the enter sign at a really excessive fee to provide a stream of 1-bit codes, as proven in **Determine 4**.

**Determine 4 **Delta-sigma modulator enter and output; the next constructive enter sign produces ones on the output the next proportion of the time whereas a decrease unfavorable enter sign produces ones a decrease proportion of the time. Supply: Texas Devices

The ratio of ones to zeros represents the enter analog voltage. For instance, if the enter sign is 0 V, the output has ones 50% of the time. A better constructive enter sign produces ones the next proportion of the time, whereas a decrease unfavorable enter sign produces ones a decrease proportion of the time. Not like most quantizers, the delta-sigma modulator pushes the quantization noise to larger frequencies [4] making it appropriate for high-precision measurements.

## Delta-sigma digital filter

The C2000 MCU has a built-in delta-sigma digital filter which decodes the 1-bit stream. The efficient variety of bits (ENOB) of the filter output depends upon the filter sort, oversampling fee (OSR), and delta-sigma modulator frequency [5]. Sometimes, the next OSR will lead to the next ENOB for a given filter sort; nevertheless, the trade-off is elevated filter delay.

You will need to select the appropriate filter configuration by learning the optimum pace versus decision trade-offs. For PFC current-loop management, a brief delay is extra essential, as a result of it may possibly assist improve the control-loop part margin and scale back the whole present harmonic distortion. Alternatively, high-resolution present information is critical to realize excessive accuracy for e-metering. For that reason, the answer proposed right here makes use of two delta-sigma digital filters: one configured with excessive pace however a comparatively low decision for PFC current-loop management, and the opposite configured with excessive decision however a comparatively low pace for e-metering; see **Determine 5**.

**Determine 5 **The proposed delta-sigma filter configuration makes use of two filters: one for high-speed however with a low decision for PFC current-loop management and one other with low-speed for e-metering however with a excessive decision. Supply: Texas Devices

## Firmware construction

**Determine 6** is the firmware construction, which consists of three loops:

- A predominant loop used for sluggish and non-time-critical duties.
- A quick interrupt service routine (IRS1) operating at 100 kHz for the ADC, delta-sigma information studying, and current-loop management.
- A slower ISR2 operating at 10 kHz for voltage-loop management and e-meter calculation.

For the reason that e-meter calculation is in ISR2, it has no impact on the PFC present loop. Integrating e-meter performance into PFC management code with this construction doesn’t have an effect on PFC efficiency.

**Determine 6 **Firmware construction that consists of three loops: a predominant loop for low non-time-critical duties; a 100 kHz IRS1 loop for ADC, delta-sigma information studying, and present loop management; and 10 kHz ISR2 lopo for voltage-loop management and e-meter calcuation. Supply: Texas Devices** **

# E-meter calculation

Now that there’s each enter present information (by means of the delta-sigma modulator) and enter voltage information (by means of the MCU’s ADC), it’s time to carry out e-meter calculations. Equation 1 calculates the enter voltage RMS worth:

the place V_{in}(n) is the V_{in} ADC pattern information and N is the whole variety of ADC samples in a single AC cycle.

The enter present RMS worth calculation consists of two steps. Step one is to calculate the measured present (inductor present) RMS worth, as proven in Equation 2:

the place I_{in}(n) is the delta-sigma digital filter output.

Referring again to Determine 3, as a result of the shunt resistor is positioned after the EMI filter, the reactive present attributable to the X-capacitor of the EMI filter shouldn’t be measured. Due to this fact, Equation 2 doesn’t signify the whole enter present. This example worsens at excessive line and lightweight load, the place the reactive present shouldn’t be negligible; correct enter present reporting requires its inclusion.

So as to calculate the reactive present of the EMI capacitor, you first have to know the enter voltage frequency. The ADC measures the AC line and impartial voltage; evaluating the road and impartial voltage values will discover the zero crossing. For the reason that enter voltage is sampled at a hard and fast fee, it’s attainable to calculate the AC frequency by counting the variety of samples between two consecutive zero-crossing factors. As soon as you realize the enter voltage frequency, Equation 3 calculates the reactive present of the EMI capacitor:

the place C is the whole capacitance of the EMI filter and f is the enter AC voltage frequency.

I_{EMI} is a reactive present that leads the measured present (I_{L}) by 90 levels; due to this fact, Equation 4 calculates the whole enter present as:

Enter energy calculation additionally consists of two steps. First, calculate the measured energy, as proven in Equation 5:

For the reason that enter voltage is measured after the EMI filter, the ability loss attributable to the EMI filter shouldn’t be measured. Whereas this energy loss is normally very small, it’s possible you’ll want to incorporate it for purposes requiring extraordinarily correct measurements.

The full DC resistance of the EMI filter is R. Equation 6 calculates the ability loss on the EMI filter as:

Lastly, including the EMI filter energy loss to the measured energy obtains the whole enter energy (Equation 7):

# Check outcomes

I carried out the proposed e-meter perform in a 3.6 kW (1.8 kW at low line) totem-pole bridgeless PFC. **Determine 7**, **Determine 8** and **Determine 9** present the take a look at outcomes at low line, excessive line and DC enter, respectively. This implementation achieved <0.5% measurement error, which is 2 occasions higher than the M-CRPS e-meter specification. Furthermore, the implementation makes use of solely 1-point calibration, which considerably reduces calibration time and price.

**Determine 7 **E-meter take a look at outcomes at 1.8 kW low line with Vin set to 115 VAC exhibiting an e-meter accuracy significantly better than the M-CRPS accuracy specification. Supply: Texas Devices

**Determine 8 **E-meter take a look at outcomes at 3.6 kW excessive line with Vin set to 230 VAC exhibiting an e-meter accuracy significantly better than the M-CRPS accuracy specification. Supply: Texas Devices

**Determine 9 **E-meter take a look at outcomes at DC enter exhibiting an e-meter accuracy significantly better than the M-CRPS accuracy specification. Supply: Texas Devices

# Low-cost, high-accuracy e-meter

This text described a low-cost and high-accuracy e-meter resolution: an remoted delta-sigma modulator measures the enter present which is then despatched to an MCU for each e-metering and PFC current-loop management. The proposed resolution achieves glorious measurement accuracy with solely 1-point calibration. In comparison with a standard e-meter resolution, it not solely saves value, but additionally simplifies PCB structure and expedites the design course of.

*Bosheng Solar is a Programs Engineer in Texas Devices, deal with growing digital managed excessive efficiency AC/DC options for server and business utility. Bosheng obtained the M.S. diploma from Cleveland State College, Ohio, USA in 2003, the B.S diploma from Tsinghua College, Beijing, China in 1995, each in Electrical Engineering. He holds 5 US patents.*

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**Associated Content material**

- Delta-sigma ADCs in a nutshell
- ADC noise article and all about delta-sigma converters
- Energy Suggestions #124: The way to enhance the ability issue of a PFC
- Energy Suggestions #116: The way to scale back THD of a PFC
- Energy Suggestions #131: Planar transformer dimension and effectivity optimization algorithm for a 1 kW high-density LLC energy module
- Energy Suggestions #130: Migrating from a barrel jack to USB Sort-C PD

** ****References**

- S. Division of Power, (2017, Feb. 7). Information Middle Metering and Useful resource Information. [Online]. Accessible: https://datacenters.lbl.gov/websites/default/information/DataCenterMeteringandResourceGuide_02072017.pdf.
- Modular {Hardware} System – Frequent Redundant Energy Provide (M-CRPS) Base Specification. Open Compute Venture, Model 1.00, Launch Candidate 4, Nov. 1, 2022.
- Analog Units. 78M6610+PSU {Hardware} Design Tips. (2012). [Online]. Accessible: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/user-guides/78m6610psu-hardware-design-guidelines.pdf.
- Bonnie Baker, “How Delta-Sigma ADCs Work.” Texas Devices Analog Utility Journal, August 2011.
- Texas Devices. TMCS320F28003x Actual-Time Microcontrollers Technical Reference Handbook. (2022). [Online]. Accessible: https://www.ti.com/product/TMS320F280039C.

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